My BDD Naming Macro

(I originally posted this on my MSDN blog.)

Over the years several people have shared the Visual Studio macros they use to make the BDD boxcar naming style easier to work with.  I thought I’d add my own, not because it’s any better than the others but because it’s built for a slightly different workflow and someone might find it useful.

First, here’s the macro:

Imports System

Imports System.Windows.Forms

Imports EnvDTE

Imports EnvDTE80

Imports System.Diagnostics

Public Module BDDNaming

    Public Sub ReplaceSpacesInTestNameWithUnderscores()

        If DTE.ActiveDocument Is Nothing Then Return

        Dim selection As TextSelection = CType(DTE.ActiveDocument.Selection(), EnvDTE.TextSelection)

        If selection.IsEmpty Then

            ReplaceSpacesAtEditPoint(selection)

        Else

            ReplaceSpacesInSelection(selection)

        End If

    End Sub

    Private Sub ReplaceSpacesInSelection(ByVal selection As TextSelection)

        Dim text As String = selection.Text

        text = text.ToLower()

        text = text.Replace(” “, “_”)

        text = text.Replace(“”””, String.Empty)

        selection.Text = text

    End Sub

    Private Sub ReplaceSpacesAtEditPoint(ByVal selection As TextSelection)

        selection.CharLeft(True, 1)

        While selection.Text(0) <> “””” AndAlso (Not selection.ActivePoint.AtStartOfLine)

            selection.CharLeft(True, 1)

        End While

        If selection.Text(0) = “””” Then

            ReplaceSpacesInSelection(selection)

            DeleteTrailingQuote(selection)

        Else

            selection.CharRight(False, 1)

        End If

    End Sub

    Private Sub DeleteTrailingQuote(ByVal selection As TextSelection)

        selection.CharRight(True, 1)

        If selection.Text(0) = “””” Then

            selection.Delete()

        Else

            selection.CharLeft(False, 1)

        End If

    End Sub

End Module

I usually bind this macro to Alt– (Alt-[dash]) because it’s easy to remember and it’s not bound by default to anything important.

To use it, I start by typing an open quote mark where I want to type a BDD context or spec name.  I use Resharper so it automatically inserts two quote marks for me, but the macro works equally well without Resharper.  The quotes prevent Intellisense from freaking out as I start to type the context or spec name:

    public class “”

 

Then I type the context or spec name as a normal sentence using the space bar like so:

    public class “when a message with no eligible listeners is sent”

 

Then I hit Alt– to convert the sentence to a proper boxcar-style identifier:

    public class when_a_message_with_no_eligible_listeners_is_sent

 

I can also highlight any arbitrary piece of text and hit Alt– to convert the spaces to underscores.

Other people like to put a lot of boilerplate code into the macro to make it easier to set up contexts and specs quickly, but I prefer this macro that does just one thing and does it well.  Hopefully someone else will find it useful too!

 

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Hiring Managers for Agile Teams

(I originally posted this on my MSDN blog.)

Someone asked a question along the lines of, “Let’s say you were hiring senior managers for a group made up of multiple agile teams.  What qualities would you look for in an interview?”

The very first thing I’d look for would be a strong understanding of and belief in agile principles and philosophy.  There are a lot of people out there who say, “Yeah, sure, agile’s great!” but they panic and revert to non-agile strategies when the going gets tough.  Does the candidate deeply understand not just how agile works mechanically, but why it works and the factors that can help or hinder success in that model?  Do they know how to fix it when it breaks?

The absolute worst thing you can have when in a difficult situation is a senior manager who doesn’t truly trust agile and knee-jerks back to traditional methods when the risks get high (which of course is precisely when traditional methods don’t work).  A thrashing manager can absolutely destroy even a strong agile team.

I guess I could drill down into specific beliefs and name things like support for self-directed teams, a passion for delivering real value rather than just sticking to a pre-determined plan, and a willingness to blur traditional role lines (dev, test, PM) in the interest of a cohesive team.

Of course, many of the usual things like the ability to hire and grow quality people, real-world experience with shipping software, a strategic understanding of the business environment, etc, are still critical.  That stuff doesn’t go away.

 

Code Reviews on Agile Teams

(I originally posted this on my MSDN blog.)

Formal Code Reviews

Formal code reviews are well-known as an effective tool for reducing bugs and improving the quality of your software.  There’s lots of literature out there that demonstrates that the cost of finding and fixing a bug goes up exponentially the later into your product lifecycle it gets.  Code reviews are by far the most efficient way to improve the quality of your code.  Unfortunately the way code reviews are usually implemented on traditional software development teams doesn’t translate well to agile teams and usually turns out to be counter-productive.

Here’s how the reasoning for code reviews usually goes:

Premise: It’s useful and important to have multiple people look at a piece of code because another person may easily see and correct flaws that the author missed.

Secondary Premise: Without a formal process, it’s not likely that anyone except the author will ever look at a given piece of code.

Conclusion: we need a formal process to ensure that multiple people look at each piece of code.

Code reviews are most useful in the kind of traditional engineering environment where Dev A owns Feature A, Dev B owns Feature B, and they rarely cross the boundaries to look at each other’s code in the course of doing their jobs.  Sometimes it’s even considered rude to make changes to code in someone else’s feature area.  If you don’t have a formal process for getting multiple sets of eyes on a piece of code in that kind of environment then sure, it’s quite possible that no one besides the author will ever look at that piece of code.  Or if they do look, they’re not going to strongly criticize it and they definitely won’t clean it up if it has problems.

So what’s the problem with formal code reviews?  Well, in practice there are two problems.  First, if you have a formal code review system that says people should get their code reviewed after they check it in then it’s probably not going to happen.  It’s a pain and people conveniently “forget” to do it.  Its the first thing to get pitched overboard in a schedule crunch.  Don’t even bother because it doesn’t work.

Ok, so to fix that you can make the code reviews a prerequisite for checking in.  Microsoft product groups use this strategy a lot and often establish elaborate rules that say you must get sign-off from a code reviewer before you can check in to the repository.  This effectively guarantees review of 100% of your source code, which is great, but it causes another (huge!) problem.

Frequent Check-ins

Agile teams have found that frequent check-ins are a very important part of the agile development process.  By frequent I don’t mean once a week or even once a day.  I mean once an hour or even more.  Every time you add a small piece of new functionality (ideally defined by a set of tests and the code that makes them pass), you should check in.  If it builds cleanly and doesn’t cause regressions, check it in.  What are you waiting for?  This has several benefits:

  1. It promotes the spirit of “continuous integration” where the whole team is working on a single shared reality rather than individual copies of reality that need to be merged later.  It prevents misunderstandings and makes it easy to get the latest code.
  2. Smaller checkins makes it much easier to find and fix a build break or to roll back a mistake.
  3. It gives the team a sense of momentum and accomplishment.
  4. It gives project managers good visibility into daily progress and how the team is doing.

We should do everything we can to promote frequent check-ins.  Frequent check-ins are good for traditional teams but they’re absolutely critical for agile teams.  There’s lots of literature out there on the benefits of checking in frequently.

Unfortunately a formal code review process works directly against frequent check-ins.  I don’t want to interrupt my co-workers 10+ times a day to look at my stuff.  I don’t want to interrupt my own flow to find an available code reviewer.  Formal, pre-check-in code reviews simply don’t scale to an agile system of frequent check-ins.  They’re incompatible.

(On a tangential note, I’ve observed teams where the check-in process is so laborious that they resort to using TFS shelvesets to pass around the “current” code to people who need it and it can take anywhere from a couple of days to more than a week for those shelvesets to get promoted to actual check-ins.  People get confused about which is the most recent shelveset and code gets lost.  This is a terrible way to work!)

XP to the Rescue

Going back to the reasoning behind formal code reviews, I strongly agree with the major premise.  It’s critical to get multiple sets of eyes on every piece of code because it drastically reduces bugs and improves quality.  However, it’s entirely possible to do software development in such a way that invalidates the secondary premise and largely eliminates the need for formal code reviews before checking in.  It’s not true that formal code reviews are the only way to get multiple eyes on the code.  There are multiple practices found in the Extreme Programming (XP) philosophy that help us do that in other, more efficient ways.

Shared Ownership

The first practice is to promote shared ownership of the code.  Instead of creating a team of specialists where each dev has exclusive ownership of a feature area, we want to create a team of generalists where everyone has the flexibility to work on pretty much every area of the product.  That doesn’t mean that we won’t have subject matter experts; of course some devs are going to be particularly knowledgeable about threading, or networking, or databases, or whatever.  But that area expertise shouldn’t translate into exclusive ownership of a piece of code.  The team as a whole owns the whole code base.  The practical implication of this is that everyone on the team has permission and is expected to work on code they didn’t write and to fix it, refactor it, and clean it up when they do.  This means that over time you’ll get multiple sets of eyes on most of the code which accomplishes the stated goal of a code review.

Swarming

The second helpful practice is to have the team “swarm” one or a few stories at a time rather than having each team member work on a completely separate story in parallel.  This is in the same vein as the first practice; stories aren’t owned by individuals, they’re owned by the team.  Not only that, but we want to encourage devs to actively work on the same stories at the same time so that when dev A checks something in, dev B will be reading, using, refactoring, and extending that code almost immediately.  This does an even better job of accomplishing the stated goals of a code review.

Pair Programming

The third helpful practice is pair programming where you literally have two devs collaborating to write a single piece of code.  People have referred to this (only partially tongue-in-cheek) as a “real-time code review”.  Pair programming is a complicated topic and confers many benefits but yes, it entirely eliminates the need for formal code reviews before every checkin.  This is the natural and logical conclusion when you follow the XP philosophy to its end.

Unfortunately, pair programming is not something you can simply slipstream into a team’s daily rhythm.  It a radical philosophical shift in the way we do development and lots of people are deeply uncomfortable with it at first, for good reason.  It’s a huge change and it’s possible to do it badly so that you don’t see any benefit from it.  There’s lots of literature out there on how to do it well but it takes time and practice.  If you’re transitioning a team from traditional software development over to agile development, you might consider starting first with shared ownership.  That by itself can be a bit of a shock to people.  Let your team digest that for awhile then try swarming, then pair programming.

Code reviews are one of the most powerful tools in a developers toolbox, but code reviews on an agile team probably won’t look the same as on a traditional team.  Keep in mind the goal you’re trying to accomplish and look for ways to get there without sabotaging other important techniques.

 

MSpec is Fantastic!

(I originally posted this on my MSDN blog.)

I’ve previously written about the Behavior-Driven Development style of TDD and about how to use such a style in MSTest.  I’ve done this on several personal and business projects and it’s worked pretty well, but I recently got around to trying Aaron Jensen’s MSpec and I have to say there’s no going back.  Conceptually my tests are the same but mechanically MSpec just flows so much better.

Here’s test context from a personal game project of mine written in my old MSTest BDD framework:

[TestClass]

public class when_the_planet_is_initialized : PlanetContext

{

    protected override void Context()

    {

        base.Context();

    }

    protected override void BecauseOf()

    {

        _planet.Initialize(_location, _radius);

    }

    [TestMethod]

    public void should_initialize_the_renderer()

    {

        _planetRenderer.AssertWasCalled(x => x.Initialize(_radius));

    }

    [TestMethod]

    public void should_create_terrain()

    {

        _terrainFactory.AssertWasCalled(x => x.Create(_radius));

    }

}

It works, but it’s noisy.

  • Each spec requires a minimum of four text lines.
  • There’s a lot of type and access control gook that obscures the intent.
  • Even though there’s no test-specific context to set up, I still have a Context method that simply calls the base class. Strictly speaking this isn’t required, but I’ve found that if I leave it out and then decide to add it later, I often forget to call base.Context so I always leave this boilerplate code here as a reminder.  Call it a defensive habit.

Now here’s the same context re-written in MSpec:

[Subject(typeof(Planet))]

public class when_the_planet_is_initialized : PlanetContext

{

    Because of = () =>

        _planet.Initialize(_location, _radius);

    It should_initialize_the_renderer = () =>

        _planetRenderer.AssertWasCalled(x => x.Initialize(_radius));

    It should_create_terrain = () =>

        _terrainFactory.AssertWasCalled(x => x.Create(_radius));

}

The MSTest version requires 25 text lines, the MSpec version 12 text lines.  This context doesn’t require an “Establish context” delegate, but if I wanted to add one later the form is the same as the other clauses and I don’t have to remember to call a base class version.  There’s far less compiler gook getting in the way and the code reads very easily.  It just oozes elegance.  Ok, I suppose Rubyists or Pythonistas might still call this noisy but for C# it’s amazing.  It can be daunting at first when your brain exclaims, “That can’t possibly be legal C# code!” but once you figure out that it’s just lambda expressions assigned to delegate fields it all makes perfect sense.

MSpec also includes BDD specification extension methods very similar to the ones I wrote about so you don’t have to worry about writing and maintaining that code, either.

If you’re at all interested in BDD, you owe it to yourself to try MSpec!